MISHRA YANTRA: Composite Instrument

Misra Yantra


Niyat Chakra Yantra


This collection of instruments measures the full range of the movement of the Sun and its yearly move on the ecliptic1 in relation to one's position on Earth.

This remarkable-looking instrument combines a very unique instrument-the Niyat Chakra Yantra (Stable Circle Instrument)-with four other instruments: the Samrat Yantra (equatorial sundial), the Dakshinovritti Yantra (the meridinal wall instrument), the Kark Rashivalaya Yantra (the Cancer Zodiac instrument), and the Agra Yantra (the amplitude instrument).

Instrument One
NIYAT CHAKRA YANTRA--Stable Instrument

This instrument displays the meridian circles of four other locations on Earth. The instrument consists of four semicircles attached to a central gnomon, two to the left and two to the right. The gnomon is inclined so as to point directly to the celestial north pole.

The four locations whose meridian circles are indicated by the Niyat Chakra Yantra are four hours east and west and five hours east and west of one's location. The semicircles are each marked in degrees to give the declination of the Sun on the meridian of these four other locations designated by each of the semicircles.

By observing the Sun's shadow (cast by the appropriate peg) as it crosses each of the semicircles, the declination of the Sun at solar noon (as it crosses that local meridian) at each of the locations can be determined.

1 An imaginary great circle on the celestial sphere that represents the apparent annual path of the Sun as viewed from Earth.


Instrument Two
SAMRAT YANTRA--Equatorial Sundial

This instrument is virtually identical to the Samrat Yantra located directly to the north in the Observatory (see page 12). This Samrat Yantra differs in that the gnomon is split and the Niyat Chakra Yantra is located in the middle of the gnomon. It consists of the center quadrant (of three) on the western side and the quadrant on the eastern side of the Misra Yantra. The shadow of the Sun cast on the quadrants by the gnomon yields the local solar time. At noon on the day of the equinox, the shadow of the Sun cast by the peg will line up directly with the line marked on the side of the gnomon.

Instrument Three
DAKSHINOVRITTI YANTRA--Meridian Wall Instrument

This instrument is a smaller, slightly different version of the one located in the northwest of the Observatory (see page 11). It consists of a semicircular scale and a peg at the center point of the semicircle on the eastern side of the Misra Yantra (this semicircle is inverted as compared to the other meridinal wall instrument). The function of this instrument is to determine the altitude of the Sun at noon.

Instrument Four
KARK RASHIVALAYA YANTRA--Cancer Zodiac Instrument

Located on the north inclined face of the Misra Yantra is a semicircular scale graduated with 180-degree markings. The plane of the north face of the Misra Yantra (where this scale is located) is parallel to the plane of the ecliptic when it is tilted furthest to the north as Kark (Cancer Zodiac Sign) culminates on the meridian. At a particular time of day, the pin will cast a shadow across the measuring surface as the sunlight enters the plane of the instrument. At the moment the Sun enters that plane, the Zodiac Sign of Kark is located directly overhead, and the shadow of the pin yields the position of the Sun on the ecliptic.

Instrument Five
AGRA YANTRA--Amplitude Instrument

This instrument is located on the west side of the Misra Yantra. It consists of three quadrants. This instrument illustrates the angle of the Sun at noon on the spring and autumn equinox and on the winter and summer solstice.



The planets revolve around the Sun, and each has a correspondence in the individual physiology. The planets move in a huge cosmic circle; the change is constant, and because of different variations in the movement and the speed of all the planets, different effects are produced on the physiology. The purpose of viewing the Misra Yantra is to promote balance between these influences and one's physiology and awareness.

Observing the Misra Yantra allows the degree of balance to be measured between the inner value of unbounded wholeness and the outer isolated point value of attention. Observing this yantra brings out the inner intelligence through the intellect, mind, senses, and behavior and takes it to the level of cosmic behavior. The net result is that the inner unmanifest and outer manifest are being observed, so balance is upheld by awareness. Viewing this yantra allows one to observe the isolated specific point values of attention on the enormous background of nonmoving empty space-the unmanifest unbounded reality. The effect is to see the gross expression of Natural Law and to connect it with subtler expression and eventually with the Transcendent; the total unmanifest gets imprinted in the awareness.


Yantra (Instrument) Pages

Chakra--Kapali Yantra Display of Rk Ved

Samrat Yantra


Dakshinovritti Yantra

Kark Rashivalaya Yantra



Agra Yantra

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